Psychology today how to spot a narcissist

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Posted March 6, Reviewed by Davia Sills. There are four major types of narcissism. Researchers have been hunting for the core of narcissism that all narcissists share despite varying symptoms and severity. Recently, two research teams have identified a common trait. Narcissists use a variety of tactics and defenses to keep you insecure and ensure that their status and their needs are met. Although there are different degrees and types of narcissism that share the required symptoms described in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM , for years, research mainly focused on the familiar—exhibitionistic narcissists who seek the limelight.

These are the boastful, grandiose narcissists who are public figures and are recognizable in films. We can all spot those charming, attention -seeking extraverts whose vanity and boldness are at times obnoxious and shameless. Some are physically abusive. These unempathetic, arrogant narcissists think highly of themselves but spare no disdain for others. Helped by their extraversion , they report high self-esteem and satisfaction with their lives, despite the pain they cause others. Because they outwardly seek acclaim, attention, and domination , grandiose narcissism is externalized.

Even in love, they seek power by game-playing. Many do maintain relationships, notwithstanding the lack of intimacy and the unhappiness of their partners , who are easily seduced by their charisma and boldness. A lesser-known type of narcissism is vulnerable narcissism also referred to as closet, introverted, or covert narcissism. Like their grandiose kin, vulnerable narcissists are self-absorbed, entitled, exploitative, unempathetic, manipulative, and aggressive, but they fear criticism so much that they shy away from attention.

Individuals of both types of narcissism often lack autonomy , experience imposter syndrome , have a weak sense of self, are self-alienated, and have an inability to master their environment. However, vulnerable narcissists experience these things to a markedly greater extent. In contrast to grandiose narcissists, rather than feeling confident and self-satisfied, vulnerable narcissists are insecure and unhappy with their lives.

They experience more distress, anxiety, guilt , depression , hypersensitivity, and shame. Their negative emotionality depicts a bitter, neurotic, averse attitude towards personal growth. They require reinforcement for their grandiose self-image and are highly defensive when perceived criticism triggers their negative opinion of themselves. Unlike extroverted narcissists, they lack positive relationships. Their attachment style is more avoidant and anxious. They withdraw from others with hostile blame and resentment, internalizing their narcissism.

Empathetic codependents feel sympathetic and want to rescue them from their misery, but end up self-sacrificing and feeling responsible for them. Even more difficult to identify is the third type of narcissism. It was only named recently—communal narcissism. Communal narcissists value warmth, agreeableness , and relatedness. They see themselves and want to be seen by others as the most trustworthy and supportive person and try to achieve this through friendliness and kindness. However, whereas the grandiose narcissist wants to be seen as the smartest and most powerful, a communal narcissist wants to be seen as the most giving and helpful.

They both share similar motives for grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power, although they each employ different behaviors to achieve them. Malignant narcissists are considered to be at the extreme end of the continuum of types of narcissism due to their cruelty and aggressiveness. They find pleasure in creating chaos and taking people down. For example, grandiose narcissists may show vulnerability and emotionality usually anger when their success is thwarted or their self-concept is under attack.

Greater grandiosity indicates greater instability and likelihood of fluctuation. Using new techniques, recent studies have attempted to isolate a singular unifying trait among narcissists. Researchers examined narcissism by testing distinct personality traits. Two recent models emerged: One is based on personality, and the other is an integrative, transactional approach. The Trifurcated Model shows that narcissism centers on three personality traits: agentic extraversion, disagreeableness, and neuroticism Miller, Lynam, et al.

Agentic extraverts are authoritative and bold go-getters who pursue acclaim, achievement, and leadership positions. Of the Big Five personality traits, disagreeableness is the only one common to both types. The model illuminates the core of narcissism to be interpersonal antagonism, shared by grandiose and vulnerable narcissists alike.

Vulnerable and grandiose narcissists express antagonism differently. The former are more hostile and distrustful, and the latter are more immodest and domineering. More entitlement and risk-taking increase professional and interpersonal difficulties. The greater the vulnerability, the further away lower is their grandiosity.

In sum, narcissism exists on a spectrum ranging from domineering and extraverted to introverted and neurotic. The core features of narcissism are antagonism, self-importance, and entitlement, making narcissists disagreeable, uncooperative partners and work associates. Because other personality types can be antagonistic, I prefer the Spectrum Model that singles out self-important entitlement as the core of narcissism, thus distinguishing it from sociopathy and borderline personality disorder, among others.

Grandiose narcissists present a mixed bag. While they feel and function better than vulnerable narcissists and can be socially engaging when they choose, their antagonism and entitlement create problems and jeopardize relationships.

If they attend psychotherapy, it should focus on their antagonism and entitlement. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissists need help managing their perceptions, moods, and emotions. They resemble people with borderline personality disorder and would benefit from dialectical behavioral therapy, which is effective in reducing antagonism. Schema-focused psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy are helpful for both types to reduce shame and anger. Whatever type of narcissist you care about, the relationship is hurtful. Edershile, E.

Houlcroft, L. Kaufman, S. Krizan, Z. Miller, J. Rhodewalt, F. On self-aggrandizement and anger: a temporal analysis of narcissism and affective reactions to success and failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 74 3 , Darlene Lancer, JD, MFT, is a d marriage and family therapist and an expert and author on relationships and codependency. Ego and self-serving biases shape the life story we share with the world—and with ourselves. The good news: An internal reckoning will help us better comprehend who we truly are.

Narcissism Know the Kind of Narcissist You're Dealing With and Symptoms Types of narcissists have different behavior, but they share two core symptoms. Narcissism Essential Re. References Edershile, E. About the Author. Online: www. Read Next. Back Psychology Today. Back Find a Therapist. Back Get Help. Personality Passive Aggression Personality Shyness. Family Life Child Development Parenting.

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Psychology today how to spot a narcissist

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Narcissistic Personality Disorder